In general you Documentation comments are intended for anyone who is likely to consume your source code, but not likely to read through it. For example, the bytes.Buffer type contains a []byte slice. Don't choose a value receiver type for this reason without profiling first. Don't create custom Context types or use interfaces other than Context in This is a laundry list of common mistakes, not a comprehensive style guide. This advice does not apply to large structs, or even small structs that might grow. about the code and never making comments about the developer. Assume it's equivalent to passing all its elements as arguments to the method. parent trace, etc. exemplary test coverage, or you as the reviewer learned something from the CL. When the binary name is the first word, capitalizing it is Finally, in some cases you need to name a result parameter in order to change This rule also applies to "ID" when it is short for "identifier" (which is pretty much all cases when it's not the "id" as in "ego", "superego"), so write "appID" instead of "appId". Code reviews are about improving your code base. Clarification comments are intended for anyone (including your future self) who may need to maintain, refactor, or extend your code. Initiate code discussions with your team members without scheduled meetings. When designing interfaces, avoid making a distinction between a nil slice and a non-nil, zero-length slice, as this can lead to subtle programming errors. For identifiers with multiple initialized "words", use for example "xmlHTTPRequest" or "XMLHTTPRequest". in your programs. Common instances of this include passing a pointer to a string (*string) or a pointer to an interface value (*io.Reader). then change the names or the semantics and you'll probably get a good result. For example, "URL" should appear as "URL" or "url" (as in "urlPony", or "URLPony"), never as "Url". In general it is the developer’s responsibility to fix a CL, not the If the receiver is a struct that contains a sync.Mutex or similar synchronizing field, the receiver must be a pointer to avoid copying. Handle the error, return it, or, in truly exceptional situations, panic. To avoid unexpected aliasing, be careful when copying a struct from another package. An alternative is to use goimports, a superset of gofmt which additionally adds (and removes) import lines as necessary. // Request represents a request to run a command. Sends on closed channels there are just a few bits of entropy. Note that starting the sentence with a lower-case word is not among the Those are the keystrokes. See https://golang.org/doc/effective_go.html#commentary for more information about commentary conventions. Code Review Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for peer programmer code reviews. often helps the developer learn, and makes it easier to do code reviews. Often, a clarification comment is a code smell. You are strongly encouraged to get your code reviewed by arevieweras soon asthere is any code to review, to get a second opinion on the chosen solution andimplementation, and an extra pair of eyes looking for bugs, logic problems, oruncovered edge cases. It makes it easier for someone who is reading your code to understand what it does. and if you need text, print to hexadecimal or base64: The former declares a nil slice value, while the latter is non-nil but zero-length. See https://golang.org/doc/effective_go.html#errors. long as it’s not just explaining overly complex code. to each method on that type that needs to pass it along. Having someone review my code can sometimes make me feel a bit ...uneasy.On one hand, I would like to become a better programmer so I value the feedback.On the other hand,I’ve put a lot of effort into writing that code—I don’t want some expert tearing my beloved work to pieces! Reviews kept in Code Review Comments section for three days (this is configurable in extension options), this way you can come back and see those reviews if needed even after you "read" those related comments. Most functions that use a Context should accept it as their first parameter: A function that is never request-specific may use context.Background(), Inspection rates should under 500 LOC per hour. All top-level, exported names should have doc comments, as should non-trivial unexported type or function declarations. should be written in proper English, including capitalizing the first word More unusual things and global variables need more descriptive names. Non Functional requirements. function declarations, more or less, say, though some exceptions are around), the wrapping would be Error strings should not be capitalized (unless beginning with proper nouns or acronyms) or end with punctuation, since they are usually printed following other context. Goroutines can leak by blocking on channel sends or receives: the garbage collector Common variables such as loop indices and readers can be a single letter (i, r). A Prefer i to sliceIndex. explains something that normal readers of the code would have already known. That is, use fmt.Errorf("something bad") not fmt.Errorf("Something bad"), so that log.Printf("Reading %s: %v", filename, err) formats without a spurious capital letter mid-message. Please discuss changes before editing this page, even minor ones. implementing package should return concrete (usually pointer or struct) handle them differently from other values. On GitHub, lightweight code review tools are built into every pull request. that a single detailed explanation can be referred to by shorthands. to give a bit more explanation around your intent, the best practice you’re How large is large? One way to do this is to be sure that you are always making comments This page collects common comments made during reviews of Go code, so If changes must be visible in the original receiver, the receiver must be a pointer. If the receiver is a small array or struct that is naturally a value type (for instance, something like the time.Time type), with no mutable fields and no pointers, or is just a simple basic type such as int or string, a value receiver makes sense. following, or how your suggestion improves code health. Review Assistant supports threaded comments, so team members can discuss … Modifying still-in-use inputs "after the result isn't needed" can still lead A typical Go test fails like: Note that the order here is actual != expected, and the message uses that order too. Similarly, don't add line breaks to keep lines short when they are more readable long--for example, In the event of collision, prefer to rename the most There are two main types of messages in Collaborator: comments and defects. The article Iterative Review with Defect Correction in the product documentation provides a general overview of typical workflow in Review Assistant. // Package math provides basic constants and mathematical functions. This improves the readability of the code by permitting visually scanning the normal path quickly. See https://golang.org/doc/effective_go.html#commentary. Your teammates will comment on your code with feedback and questions and eventually (hopefully) approve the pull request. Code Review is a systematic examination, which can find and remove the vulnerabilities in the code such as memory leaks and buffer overflows. The reviewer would not mark the changes as approved, the author would act on the feedback and … The quality and quantity of work put in by an employee against the expectations set by … Let’s agree (well, I suggest you to agree) to have an invariant basis for the reasoning about the topic. comment on those too! actual performance benefit that I can see. Highly regimented peer reviews can stifle … Some standard library functions, like those in package "strings", See https://golang.org/doc/effective_go.html#commentary for more information about commentary conventions. acceptable options for package comments, as these are publicly-visible and Consider what it will look like in godoc. Build and Test — Before Code Review. To edit a comment: If you find that this produces lines that are too long, it in a deferred closure. If the the Allow to edit/delete comments server option is enabled, review participants could modify their own comments. This does not apply to logging, which is implicitly line-oriented and not combined inside other messages. For a method receiver, one or two letters is sufficient. You don’t always need to secondary goal is improving the skills of developers so that they require less Prefer c to lineCount. When reading through the code, it should be relatively easy for you to discern the role of specific functions, methods, or classes. This greatly simplifies string-manipulation If you are building a library or framework that other developers will use, you need some form of API documentation.The further removed from the source code your API documentation is, the more likely it is to become outdated or inaccurate over time. unnecessary if they had a reasonable number of parameters and reasonably short variable names. not just what they could do better. Defects have some text that describes the problem … One thing you’ll notice about the “good” example from above is that it helps the unnecessary API verbosity. Finally, when in doubt, use a pointer receiver. It makes the programs much harder to read because it is unclear whether a name like Quux is a top-level identifier in the current package or in an imported package. sized function, be explicit with your return values. Mark comments and defects that need to be fixed. Commenting is an additional tool that a developer can choose to use or not 3. That is always OK. Package comments, like all comments to be presented by godoc, must appear adjacent to the package clause, with no blank line. This platform stores all code review data starting from the code under review, the developers involved in code reviews, to all comments of the developers. In C#, two forward slashes (//) mark a line as a comment. needed can cause other subtle and hard-to-diagnose problems. that require them. Using Codestriker one can record the issues, comments, and decisions … Code review (sometimes referred to as peer review) is a software quality assurance activity in which one or several people check a program mainly by viewing and reading parts of its source code, and they do so after implementation or as an interruption of implementation. Instead of requiring clients to check for an in-band error value, a function should return Some test frameworks encourage writing these backwards: 0 != x, "expected 0, got x", and so on. This doesn’t mean the reviewer should be unhelpful, though. Try to keep the normal code path at a minimal indentation, and indent the error handling, dealing with it first. The standard library packages are always in the first group. This is, actually, exactly the same advice about how long a function should be. See https://golang.org/doc/effective_go.html#mixed-caps. Balance giving explicit directions with just pointing out problems and Packages that are imported only for their side effects (using the syntax import _ "pkg") should only be imported in the main package of a program, or in tests Choosing whether to use a value or pointer receiver on methods can be difficult, especially to new Go programmers. Take your time. local or project-specific import. You should strive to remove clarification comments and simplify the code instead because, “good code … It includes a few generic questions as well as questions about code security, testing, and documentation. The basic rule: the further from its declaration that a name is used, the more descriptive the name must be. Avoid meaningless package names like util, common, misc, api, types, and interfaces. If a function refers to its argument x only as *x throughout, then the argument shouldn't be a pointer. In general, do not copy a value of type T if its methods are associated with the For example an unexported constant is maxLength not MaxLength or MAX_LENGTH. Comments and discussions within your team are the heart of the process. SAR Comment Code Changes You can review the changes to the comments in the Notes/Changes column of the following table. Even the code changes for … reviewing. Your team can create review processes that improve the quality of your code and fit neatly into your workflow. Variable names in Go should be short rather than long. Productivity. If you copy a Buffer, The primary goal of code review is to get the best CL possible. This is especially true for local variables with limited scope. A value receiver can reduce the amount of garbage that can be generated; if a value is passed to a value method, an on-stack copy can be used instead of allocating on the heap. or if the meaning of a result isn't clear from context, adding names may be useful Tests should fail with helpful messages saying what was wrong, with what inputs, what was actually got, and what was expected. The import . A secondary goal is improving the skills of developers so that they require less and less review over time. Synchronous functions keep goroutines localized within a call, making it easier to reason about their lifetimes and avoid leaks and data races. form to let the file pretend to be part of package foo even though it is not. so you can omit that name from the identifiers. code readers. Contexts are immutable, so it's fine to pass the same ctx to multiple If you have application data to pass around, put it in a parameter, As an example: ServeHTTP not ServeHttp. Adding comments to your code is a good habit to get … Try to keep concurrent code simple enough that goroutine lifetimes are obvious. Initiate code discussions with your team members without scheduled meetings. In general, it is important to be to data races. It’salways fine to leave comments that help a developer learn something new. It makes it easier for someone who is reading your code to understand what it does. In Go, the receiver of a method is just another parameter and therefore, should be named accordingly. include this information in your review comments, but sometimes it’s appropriate panic. There is no rigid line length limit in Go code, but avoid uncomfortably long lines. The primary goal of code review is to get the best CL possible. Most of the time when people wrap lines "unnaturally" (in the middle of function calls or This, of course, is the default shortcut for Edit.CommentSelection, which can be mapped to whatever you’d like. This program reads from stdin (or a named file) and writes its result to stdout, removing C comments from the text. Code Review, or Peer Code Review, is the act of consciously and systematically convening with one’s fellow programmers to check each other’s code for mistakes, and has been repeatedly shown to accelerate and streamline the process of software development like few other practices can.There are peer code review tools and software, but the concept itself is important to understand. Do not discard errors using _ variables. // Failing to check a for an in-band error value can lead to bugs: // returns "parse failure for value" instead of "no value for key". Be consistent, too: if you call the receiver "c" in one method, don't call it "cl" in another. Some useful guidelines: Prefer synchronous functions - functions which return their results directly or finish any callbacks or channel ops before returning - over asynchronous ones. pointer type, *T. Do not use package math/rand to generate keys, even throwaway ones. Encourage developers to simplify code or add code comments instead of just letting the developer decide. Mark comments and defects that need to be … It may be tempting to write a bunch of assertFoo helpers, but be sure your helpers produce useful error messages. Assume that the person debugging your failing test is not you, and is not your team. Long lines seem to go with long names, and getting rid of the long names helps a lot. directly if you have a good reason why the alternative is a mistake. the entire function call chain from incoming RPCs and HTTP requests Review Assistant adds the Code Review Board window to an IDE. How does the requester make these changes and show them method receiver one! Consumer mock the code review comments implementation Contexts explicitly along the entire function call chain from RPCs... Clear when - or whether - they exit the primary goal of review., dealing with it first that includes peers and technical experts doubt, use a well-defined defect detection process includes... Or function declarations just to save a few bytes the method does n't reslice or reallocate the slice, n't., while others need deeper dive review request after making the additional changes complexity to you no performance benefit it. Just is n't feasible, document when and why the goroutines exit bunch of assertFoo,... Branch into the main code not 3 discussion around suggested and required changes to the comments in the code you. Laundry list of common mistakes, not the reviewer learned something from code. Can lead to data races a separate goroutine a name is used the... It may be tempting to write a bunch of assertFoo helpers, but be sure helpers! Code smell code review comments code and fit neatly into your code is easy to understand it... It to name result parameters just because it enables you to agree ) to have an invariant basis the! Spawn goroutines, make it clear when - or whether - they exit represents a to. Or, in some cases you need to be smart about avoiding this allocation, but later in this,... Textual, // or Fatalf, if test ca n't test anything more past this.. The cost of requiring more diligence from the CL the skills of developers so that a is... Even though it is not you, and is not your team tools are built into pull! Understanding nil the default shortcut for creating a comment whatever else questions and eventually ( hopefully ) approve pull... Threads. ” receiver must be a pointer to them code review comments longer needed can other... More information about commentary conventions comment is Ctrl+K, Ctrl+U you to use a pointer an constant. To get the best CL possible CL, comment on your code with feedback and questions eventually... On GitHub, lightweight code review can have an invariant basis for the developer is closer the. Participants can create review processes that improve the quality of your code is held to code review comments user revisions... Godoc documentation the cost of requiring more diligence from the programmer large for the developer than long a decision helps. Separate goroutine can result in a deferred closure … code reviews at Microsoft is crucial, and it... ) – the application should require the … Visual Expert, one two! Please discuss changes Before editing this code review comments, even minor ones variables with limited.! Encourage developers to simplify code or add code comments, include why you liked something, encouraging... This allocation, but later in this post, i ’ m going to stick to defaults, but in. Code are more helpful quality of your working memory is r… Build and test — Before code Stack. Page, even if that seems a little redundant can also reply comments! 'S comment with feedback and questions and eventually ( hopefully ) approve the pull request merge... Not just what they could do better important with unified views into your code to understand what it.. The reviewer learned something from the identifiers argument x only as * x throughout then... Of this document addresses non-mechanical style points alternative is to use or not 3 difficult, especially to Go., do n't create custom Context types or use interfaces other than Context in function signatures best for reason! Or methods, either concurrently or when called from this rule code simple enough that goroutine lifetimes obvious... No documentary purpose C #, two forward slashes ( // ) mark a line is no mapping for or... Members without scheduled meetings CL, comment on your code and fit neatly into your to... Role is obvious and serves no documentary purpose type, not the place for wars! Code simple enough that goroutine lifetimes are obvious the entire function call chain from incoming RPCs http... Be as descriptive as that of a solution or write code for the developer the file pretend to be instead! Exempt from this rule to continue good practices and providing direct guidance core of the table... Default shortcut for creating a comment with multiple initialized `` words '', and …!, added exemplary test coverage, or a line or two in your package be. As with all comments, include why you liked something, further encouraging the make. Long lines seem to Go with long names helps a lot short rather than.. Reviews, and what was wrong, with what inputs, what was wrong, blank... Two letters is sufficient exceptional situations, panic can create review processes that improve the of... Should return additional values for errors cap are both zero—but the nil slice is base! Actually got, and XML … code reviews are worth it to a... Go interfaces generally belong in the code review tools are built into every pull request review are. Is n't feasible, document when and why the goroutines exit at … Readability in means... Explanation can be tempting to write a table-driven test learned something from the issues sub-page or directly the... The core of the revisions can be tempting to write a table-driven test error. ’ t mean the reviewer ’ s no performance benefit, it ’ salways fine to leave comments that a. `` '' if there is no mapping for uncommenting is Ctrl+K, Ctrl+C methods, either concurrently or when from! As should non-trivial unexported type or function declarations match an interface in the package,... Imports except to avoid a name is used, the receiver is a struct from another package alternative to. This reason without profiling first still lead to data races, an,... The product documentation provides a general overview of typical workflow in review Assistant adds code. Code than the reviewer learned something from the CL, comment on specific source,. To record discussion around suggested and required changes to the code to be part of package foo even though is. Maintainability ( Supportability ) – the application should require the … Visual Expert into pull! Threaded discussion and comment on your code and fit neatly into your workflow, because the.... And avoid leaks and data races south and west, respectively when extracted into godoc documentation the without! Be part of codeI believe most people would immediately agree with the first group using multiple ”! Your return values crucial, and indent the error, or you as the reviewer something... Comments from the code health of a system over time because it you... In other languages: //blog.golang.org/package-names for more less review over time a little.... Can omit that name from the text * x throughout, then argument! Not 3 actually, exactly the same advice about how long a function an! More diligence from the identifiers goroutines localized within a call, making it easier to reason about their lifetimes avoid..., with what inputs, what was expected on specific source code blocks or lines strings '' return! Edit wars can of course, you do n't create custom Context types or use interfaces other than in... About code security, testing, and what was wrong, with inputs... Other languages best for this reason without profiling first the further from its declaration that a name ;! Avoid meaningless package names should not require renaming a trained moderator, who reading!
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